“There is one poor fool in the world,” he said, shrugging
36. The Rent paid to such Parishes or Vestries, should be annually distributed to those who had a Right of Commoning on such Lands as may, from Time to Time, be enclosed and improv'd; and that in such Proportion as their several Rights may intitle them to; unless the Parliament should think it more useful and beneficial to apply such Rents to the Relief of the Poor, in those and other Parishes that may stand in need of Assistance and Relief, or direct its Application any other fitter Way; or unless those who have the Right of commoning, will enclose and improve it in such Parts, as their several Rights may intitle them to.
37. I look with Compassion upon the Hardships of the poor Artificers and Manufacturers. See his Majesty's most Gracious Speech of January 13, 1729.
38. This is the sole Rule concerning Trade, to which any Government should ever attend, and which, if sufficiently attended to, will always render them as powerful, and their People as happy, as the Nature of Things is capable of; and is therefore infinitely preferrable to any Encouragements or Restraints in favour of Trade, which ultimately will always terminate in Mischief to Trade.
Money and Trade Considered With a Proposal for Supplying the Nation with Money
Money and Trade Considered with a Proposal for Supplying the Nation with Money. Edinburgh. Printed by the Heirs and Successors of Andrew Anderson, Printer to the Queens most Excellent Majesty, Anno DOM. 1705.
There are several Proposals offer'd to Remedy the Difficulties the Nation is under from the great Scarcity of Money. That a right Judgment may be made, which will be most Safe, Advantageous and Practicable; It seems Necessary, 1. That the Nature of Money be inquired into, and why Silver was us'd as Money preferable to other Goods. 2. That Trade be considered, and how far Money affects Trade. 2. That the Measures have been us'd for preserving and Increasing Money, and these now propos'd be examin'd.
How Goods are valued. Of Barter, of silver; Its Value as a Mettal, its Qualities fitting it for Money, and the Additional Value it received from being us'd as Money.
Goods have a Value from the Uses they are apply'd to; And their Value is Greater or Lesser, not so much from their more or less valuable, or necessary Uses: As from the greater or lesser Quantity of them in proportion to the Demand for them. Example. Water is of great use, yet of little Value; Because the Quantity of Water is much greater than the Demand for it. Diamonds are of little use, yet of great Value, because the Demand for Diamonds is much greater, than the Quantity of them. Goods of the same kind differ in Value, from any difference in their Quality. (Ex.) One Horse is better than another Horse. Barley of one Country is better than Barley of another Country. Goods change their Value, from any Change in their quantity, or in the Demand for them. (Ex.) If Oats be in greater Quantity than last year, and the Demand the same, or lesser, Oats will be less valuable. Mr Lock sayes, The Value of Goods is according to their Quantity in Proportion to their Vent. The Vent of Goods cannot be greater than the Quantity, but the Demand may be greater: (Ex.) If the Quantity of Wine brought from France be a 100 Tunn, and the Demand be for 500 Tunn, the Demand is greater than the Vent; and the 100 Tunn will sell at a higher Price, than if the Demand were only equal to the Vent. So the Prices of Goods are not according to the Quantity in Proportion to the Vent, but in Proportion to the Demand. Before the use of Money was known, Goods were exchang'd by Barter, or Contract; and Contracts were made payable in Goods. This State of Barter was inconvenient, and disadvantageous. 1. He who desir'd to Barter would not always find People who wanted the Goods he had, and had such Goods as he desir'd in Exchange.