Tcheriapin revisited Dr. Kreener on many occasions afterward,
By the Number of Deaths 26761, divide the Years they lived 623713, and 23 Years and about 1/3, according to the Bill of Mortality, appears to be the Par Term of human Life; multiply the Deaths by this Term, shews the Number of People living in the Bills of Mortality to be about 624,423 Persons; and if we suppose the Houses one with another to contain 10 Souls, then the Number of Houses inhabited will be 62,442. Now the London Evening Post of January 2, 1732-3, says upwards of 8000 Houses, according to Account lately taken are empty in London, Westminister, and Places with the Bills of Mortality; most of which, let at an Average at about 20 l. per Annum; at which Rate there is upwards of 160,000 l. Rent yearly lost in the Bills of Mortality, more than a ninth Part of the whole Building being empty. By this Bill of Mortality it also appears, that more than half the human Race die under 10 Years of Age; and if we consider the Number of young Persons, under and over this age, who live to supply the Places of those that die, in all the Stages of LIfe above this Term, there can be no doubt that Children make about half the Business of the World as I have asserted. And tho' it appears by this Bill of Mortality that the Term of Life, on the Par, is about 49 Years, excluding all those that die at 20 Years and under, yet I can't imagine the Term Men have to raise and provide for Families in the Marriage State doth much exceed 20 years, since it's pretty certain Marriages in general commence a few Years at least later than the Age of 20 years, and are undoubtedly generally dissolved by the Death of one of the Parties before they both reach the Term of 49 Years.
6. I am not unsensible that Mr Derham in his Pysico-Theology shews that the Deaths in London as in most great Cities are greater than the Births, whence an Objection may seem to arise to the Increase abovementioned, which I think is of no Weight, because if a Nation will absolutely double themselves in about 360 Years, notwithstanding Wars and Plagues, Cities must do so too; nay it's plain by what Dr Nichols says, London increased at so much greater Rate as to Double itself in 40 Years, notwithstanding the last great Plague which happened in that Period.
7. Doctor John Laurence, in his System of Agriculture. Page 45, says, Without all Question, Improvement of Lands, of what Kind soever, makes Riches and Plenty, and Plenty calls together Inhabitants, and People to consume it. And, Page 47, he says, So plain it is, that Inclosure is the greatest Encouragement to good Husbandry, and Remedy for Beggary, the Poor being imployed by the continual Labour bestowed on such Land, which is doubly repaid by the fruitful Crops it annually yields.
8. Sir William Pettis says, that a Nation will double their Number in 200 Years; which must always be understood thus, that it must be exempt from the Ravage of War, the Destruction of Pestilence, or being drained for distant Colonies.
9. Eras. Phillips, Esq; in his State of the Nation, etc., Page 13, says very truly. High Duties and Prohibitions on our Side beget high Duties and Prohibitions on theirs.
10. Eras. Phillips, Esq; Page 14. gloriously says, A trading Nation should be an open Ware house, where the Merchant may buy what he pleases, or sell what he can. Whatever is brought to you, if you don't want it, you won't purchase it; if you do want it, the Largeness of the Impost don't keep it from you.
11. This will in the Course of this Essay appear to be a necessary Consequence in this Case.
12. Mr Benjamin Ward of Yarmouth, in his State of the Woollen Manufactory considered, who seems to have informed himself thoroughly of this important Branch in foreign Nations, says, Page 4. "It's certain no country in Europe manufactures all Kinds of Goods so dear as the People of this Kingdom, which gives other Nations a vast Advantage in carrying their Manufactures to Market, and enabling them to become our Rivals in Trade to almost all Countries; and a little lower he says, 10 Pound and a half of Wool from the Sheeps Back will make a piece of Calimanco weighing eight pounds, which Wool will cost our Manufacturers about 6 s. ; the manufacturing thereof will cost 1 l. 4 s.; So that the Piece will cost us 1 l 10 s. But though Foreigners must be at so great a Charge to get our Wool, that the same Quantity will cost them double, that is 12 s.; yet being able to manufacture the same for 12 s. which is 1 l. 4 s. they can and do undersel us 6 shillings, which is 20 per cent in such a Piece, of which he says, the manufacturing Part is as little as any Stuff we make; wherefore, as he says, Page 9, we are under an absolute Necessity to make our Goods as cheap as possibly we can, if we mean not to lose our foreign Trade." And I say there is no way to do it but to reduce the Necessaries of Life to half their present Price, that we may work as cheap as any Nation that now interferes in any of our Manufactures or Branches of our Trade, which may certainly be done the Way I propose; and this will infallibly remedy all the Evils the foreign or domestick Trade of this Kingdom any ways suffers, and will make Money sufficiently plentiful amongst all Ranks of People, together with it; for these Things shew themselves, or are self evident. Eras. Phillips, Esq: Page 8, says, "Next to lessening the Price of Labour is to bring down the Price of Wool: It hath been in a great Measure owing to the dearness of our Woollen Manufactures, that both Holland and France have thought it worth their Care to set up Looms of their own, to our great if not irreparable Detriment; and France hath so far succeeded, that she seems to have no further Occasion for our Cloaths at all. And Holland hath found out this secret of Trade to buy up our Raw Cloaths, if I may be allowed the Expression, and dye and nap them so much cheaper than we, that they are able to undersel us in Goods of our own Produce."